Course Content
Introduction to Data Structure
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Sorting Algorithms
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Searching Algorithms
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Data Structures and Algorithms for Beginners

Insertion sorting works similarly to the sorting of playing cards in hands. In the card game, it is assumed that the first card is already sorted, and then we select an unsorted card.

It will be placed on the right side if the unsorted card is greater than the first; otherwise, it will be placed on the left side. A similar procedure is followed for all unsorted cards.

Insertion sort follows the same approach. In the insertion sort, the idea is to take one element and iterate through the array of elements that are sorted in ascending or descending order.

It is simple to use, but not recommended for large data sets, because the time complexity of insertion sort in the average case and worst case is `O(n2)`, where n is the number of elements.

It is less efficient than other sorting algorithms such as heap sort, quick sort, merge sort, etc.

## Time Complexity

CaseTime Complexity
Best CaseO(n)
Average CaseO(n2)
Worst CaseO(n2)

Best Case O(n): It occurs when there is no sorting needed, i.e. the array is already sorted.

Average Case O(n): The array elements are in a jumbled order that is not properly ascending and descending.

Worst Case O(n): This occurs when the array elements need to be sorted in reverse order. In other words, suppose you have to sort an array in ascending order, but its elements are arranged in descending order.

## Space Complexity

 Space Complexity O(1) Stable Yes

An insertion sort required extra variables for swapping. Hence, the space complexity of insertion sorting is O(1).

## Example

C Program

``````#include <stdio.h>

/* function to sort an array with insertion sort */
void insertion_sort(int a[], int n) {
for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
int temp    = a[i];
int j       = i - 1;

/* Move the elements greater than temp to one position ahead from their current position*/
while(j >= 0 && temp <= a[j]) {
a[j+1]  = a[j];
j       = j-1;
}
a[j + 1]  = temp;
}
}

/* function to print the array */
void print(int a[], int n) {
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
printf("%d ", a[i]);
}

int main() {
int a[] = {50, 20, 32, 13, 30, 18};
int n = sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0]);
printf("Before sorting array elements are - n");
print(a, n);

insertion_sort(a, n);
printf("nAfter sorting array elements are - n");
print(a, n);

return 0;
} ``````

Java Program

``````public class InsertionSort {
/* function to sort an array with insertion sort */
static void insertion_sort(int a[]) {
for (int i = 1; i < a.length; i++) {
int temp    = a[i];
int j       = i - 1;

/* Move the elements greater than temp to one position ahead from their current position*/
while(j>=0 && temp <= a[j]) {
a[j+1]  = a[j];
j       = j-1;
}
a[j+1]      = temp;
}
}

/* function to print the array */
static void print(int a[]) {
for (int i = 0; i <  a.length; i++)
System.out.print(a[i] + " ");
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
int a[] = {50, 20, 32, 13, 30, 18};
System.out.println("nBefore sorting array elements are - ");
print(a);

insertion_sort(a);
System.out.println("nnAfter sorting array elements are - ");
print(a);
System.out.println();
}
} ``````